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Introduction to MPEG

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   MPEG Group of Pictures - GOP

Frames can be grouped into sequences called a group of pictures (GOP). A GOP is an encoding of a sequence of frames that contain all the information that can be completely decoded within that GOP. For all frames within a GOP that reference other frames (such as B-frames and P-frames), the frames so referenced (I-frames and P-frames) are also included within that same GOP.

The types of frames and their location within a GOP can be defined in time (temporal) sequence. The temporal distance of images is the time or number of images between specific types of images in a digital video. M is the distance between successive P-Frames and N is the distance between successive I-Frames. Typical values for MPEG GOP are M equals 3 and N equals 12.

This figure shows how different types of frames can compose a group of pictures (GOP). A GOP can be characterized as the depth of compressed predicted frames (m) as compared to the total number of frames (n). This example shows that a GOP starts within an intra-frame (I-frame) and that intra-frames typically requires the largest number of bytes to represent the image (200 kB in this example). The depth m represents the number of frames that exist between the I-frames and P-frames.

MPEG Group of Pictures - GOP Diagram

MPEG Group of Pictures - GOP Diagram


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   MPEG Books

Introduction to MPEG Book



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Introduction to MPEG

This book explains the basics of audio and video digitization and compression and the standard formats that are used be MPEG. You will learn about the different MPEG audio coders and video coder options.

$19.99 Printed, $16.99 eBook

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